LIWC Dictionary (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count)
The WordStat version of the LIWC Dictionary is currently distributed with the original LIWC2007 software package. You can order the LIWC software directly from the authors. The LIWC2007 software is available in both Windows and Mac format. However, the WordStat version of the dictionary can only be used on a Windows compatible computer with the WordStat content analysis software.
The LIWC2007 Dictionary is composed of 2,290 words and word stems. Each word or word-stem defines one or more word categories or subdictionaries. For example, the word 'cried' is part of four word categories: sadness, negative emotion, overall affect, and a past tense verb. Hence, if it is found in the target text, each of these four subdictionary scale scores will be incremented. As in this example, many of the LIWC2007 categories are arranged hierarchically. All anger words, by definition, will be categorized as negative emotion and overall emotion words.
Each of the 74 preset LIWC2007 categories is composed of a list of dictionary words that define that scale. The table below provides a comprehensive list of the LIWC2007 dictionary categories with sample scale words, and relevant scale word counts.
The LIWC dictionary is also available Spanish and German. French, Italian and Dutch versions are currently under development. To obtain information about those versions of the LIWC, please contact James W. Pennebaker.
Of the 4,500 words and word stems included in the original LIWC dictionary, only one entry (e.g. LIKE) could not be included in the WordStat version because of specific disambiguation rules used . We are confident that this minor difference won't affect very much the numerical results or conclusions of a content analysis.
Pennebaker, J. W. (1997). Writing about emotional experiences as a therapeutic process. Psychological Science, 8, 162-166.
Pennebaker, J.W., & Francis, M.E. (1996). Cognitive, emotional, and language processes in disclosure. Cognition and Emotion, 10, 601-626.
Pennebaker, J.W., & King, L.A. (1999). Linguistic styles: Language use as an individual difference. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1296-1312.
Pennebaker, J. W., Mayne, T., & Francis, M. E. (1997). Linguistic predictors of adaptive bereavement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 863-871.
Pennebaker, J.W. (2002). What our words can say about us: Toward a broader language psychology. Psychological Science Agenda, 15, 8-9.
Newman, M.L., Pennebaker, J.W., Berry, D.S., & Richards, J.M. (2001). Lying words: Predicting deception from linguistic styles. Paper submitted for publication.
LIWC 2007 Dimensions and Sample Words
I. STANDARD LINGUISTIC DIMENSIONS
|Total function words||464|
|Total pronouns||I, them, itself||116|
|Personal pronouns||I, them, her||70|
|1st person singular . . . ,||I, me, mine||12|
|1st person plural||we, our, us||12|
|2nd person||you, your, thou||20|
|3rd person singular||she, her, him||17|
|3rd person plural||they, their, they’d||10|
|Impersonal pronouns||It, its’s those||46|
|Articles||a, an, the||3|
|Verbs||walk, went, see||383|
|Auxiliary verbs||Am, will,have||144|
|Past tense||walked, were, had||145|
|Present tense||Is, does, hear||169|
|Future tense||will, gonna||48|
|Adverbs||very, really, qucikly||69|
|Negations||no, never, not||57|
|Quantifiers||few, many, much||89|
|Numbers||one, thirty, million||34|
|Swear words||damn, fuck, piss||53|
II. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES
|Social Processes||talk, us, friend||455|
|Friends||pal, buddy, coworker||37|
|Family||mom, brother, cousin||64|
|Humans||boy, woman, group||61|
|Affective Processes||happy, ugly, bitter||915|
|Positive Emotions||happy, pretty, good||405|
|Negative Emotions||hate, worthless, enemy||499|
|Anxiety||nervous, afraid, tense||91|
|Anger||hate, kill, pissed||184|
|Sadness||grief, cry, sad||101|
|Cognitive Processes||cause, know, ought||730|
|Insight||think, know, consider||195|
|Causation||because, effect, hence||108|
|Discrepancy||should, would, could||76|
|Tentative||maybe, perhaps, guess||155|
|Inclusive||with, and, include||18|
|Exclusive||but, except, without||17|
|Perceptual Processes||see, touch, listen||273|
|Seeing||view, saw, look||72|
|Hearing||heard, listen, sound||51|
|Feeling||touch, hold, felt||75|
|Biological Processes||eat, blood, pain||567|
|Body||ache, heart, cough||180|
|Health||clinic, flu, pill||236|
|Sexuality||horny, love, incest||96|
|Ingestion||eat, swallow, taste||111|
|Relativity||area, bend, exit, stop||638|
|Motion||walk, move, go||168|
|Space||Down, in, thin||220|
|Time||hour, day, oclock||239|
III. PERSONAL CONCERNS
|Work||work, class, boss||327|
|Achievement||try, goal, win||186|
|Leisure||house, TV, music||229|
|Home||house, kitchen, lawn||93|
|Money||audit, cash, owe||173|
|Religion||altar, church, mosque||159|
|Death||bury, coffin, kill||62|
IV. SPOKEN CATEGORIES
|Assent||agree, OK, yes||30|
|Fillers||blah, you know, I mean||9|