Content Analysis and Text Mining

LIWC Dictionary (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count)

Ordering information

The WordStat version of the LIWC Dictionary is currently distributed with the original LIWC2007 software package. You can order the LIWC software directly from the authors. The LIWC2007 software is available in both Windows and Mac format. However, the WordStat version of the dictionary can only be used on a Windows compatible computer with the WordStat content analysis software.

Dictionary information


The LIWC2007 Dictionary is composed of 2,290 words and word stems. Each word or word-stem defines one or more word categories or subdictionaries. For example, the word 'cried' is part of four word categories: sadness, negative emotion, overall affect, and a past tense verb. Hence, if it is found in the target text, each of these four subdictionary scale scores will be incremented. As in this example, many of the LIWC2007 categories are arranged hierarchically. All anger words, by definition, will be categorized as negative emotion and overall emotion words.

Each of the 74 preset LIWC2007 categories is composed of a list of dictionary words that define that scale. The table below provides a comprehensive list of the LIWC2007 dictionary categories with sample scale words, and relevant scale word counts.

The LIWC dictionary is also available Spanish and German. French, Italian and Dutch versions are currently under development. To obtain information about those versions of the LIWC, please contact James W. Pennebaker.

WordStat format

Of the 4,500 words and word stems included in the original LIWC dictionary, only one entry (e.g. LIKE) could not be included in the WordStat version because of specific disambiguation rules used . We are confident that this minor difference won't affect very much the numerical results or conclusions of a content analysis.

Selected References

Pennebaker, J. W. (1997). Writing about emotional experiences as a therapeutic process. Psychological Science, 8, 162-166.

Pennebaker, J.W., & Francis, M.E. (1996). Cognitive, emotional, and language processes in disclosure. Cognition and Emotion, 10, 601-626.

Pennebaker, J.W., & King, L.A. (1999). Linguistic styles: Language use as an individual difference. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1296-1312.

Pennebaker, J. W., Mayne, T., & Francis, M. E. (1997). Linguistic predictors of adaptive bereavement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 863-871.

Pennebaker, J.W. (2002). What our words can say about us: Toward a broader language psychology. Psychological Science Agenda, 15, 8-9.

Newman, M.L., Pennebaker, J.W., Berry, D.S., & Richards, J.M. (2001). Lying words: Predicting deception from linguistic styles. Paper submitted for publication.

LIWC 2007 Dimensions and Sample Words





Total function words   464
Total pronouns I, them, itself 116
Personal pronouns I, them, her 70
1st person singular      .  .     .           , I, me, mine 12
1st person plural we, our, us 12
2nd person you, your, thou 20
3rd person singular       she, her, him 17
3rd person plural they, their, they’d 10
Impersonal pronouns It, its’s those 46
Articles a, an, the 3
Verbs walk, went, see 383
Auxiliary verbs Am, will,have 144
Past tense walked, were, had 145
Present tense Is, does, hear 169
Future tense will, gonna 48
Adverbs very, really, qucikly 69
Prepositions with, above 60
Conjonctions but, whereas 28
Negations no, never, not 57
Quantifiers few, many, much 89
Numbers one, thirty, million 34
Swear words damn, fuck, piss 53


Social Processes talk, us, friend 455
Friends pal, buddy, coworker 37
Family mom, brother, cousin 64
Humans boy, woman, group 61
Affective Processes happy, ugly, bitter 915
Positive Emotions happy, pretty, good 405
Negative Emotions hate, worthless, enemy 499
Anxiety nervous, afraid, tense 91
Anger hate, kill, pissed 184
Sadness grief, cry, sad 101
Cognitive Processes cause, know, ought 730
Insight think, know, consider 195
Causation because, effect, hence 108
Discrepancy should, would, could 76
Tentative maybe, perhaps, guess 155
Certainty always, never 83 
Inhibition block, constrain 111
Inclusive with, and, include 18
Exclusive but, except, without 17
Perceptual Processes see, touch, listen 273
Seeing view, saw, look 72
Hearing heard, listen, sound 51
Feeling touch, hold, felt 75
Biological Processes eat, blood, pain 567
Body ache, heart, cough 180
Health clinic, flu, pill 236
Sexuality horny, love, incest 96
Ingestion eat, swallow, taste 111
Relativity area, bend, exit, stop 638
Motion walk, move, go 168
Space Down, in, thin 220
Time hour, day, oclock 239


Work work, class, boss 327
Achievement try, goal, win 186 
Leisure house, TV, music 229
Home house, kitchen, lawn 93
Money audit, cash, owe 173 
Religion altar, church, mosque 159
Death bury, coffin, kill 62


Assent agree, OK, yes 30
Nonfluencies uh, rr* 8
Fillers blah, you know, I mean 9

About KCS

Kovach Computing Services (KCS) was founded in 1993 by Dr. Warren Kovach. The company specializes in the development and marketing of inexpensive and easy-to-use statistical software for scientists, as well as in data analysis consulting.

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